Time: at least 5.5 hours (ICBC requirement)
Step 1: Get the new worksheet during the Dec-11 class. If you don't have a reserved seat in that class, send an email 3 days before the class to schedule a time to get the worksheet (not available online).
Step 2: Start your phone's timer at 5.5 hours and pause it each time you need a break from this assignment. Spread the hours over as many days as possible before the worksheet's due date.
Step 3: Ask 3 people to go to noidroc.ca and answer A-B-C-D. Use a pen (not pencil) to print (not write) their answers on the worksheet.
Time: approximately 15 minutes
Step 4: Find a driver who has been in a crash while they were in the driver's seat and who has never been interviewed for someone else's worksheet, then use a pen to print/draw 4 things on the worksheet:
1) number of years that they have been driving
2) number of crashes that they have experienced while driving
3) diagram for one crash (indicate vehicles with letters and arrows)
4) description (refer to vehicles by letters) and consequences of crash
Time: approximately 15 minutes
Step 5: Scroll down past the ICBC manual, tap "Chapter 1" and read that chapter, then read each of the related Test Units and use a pen to do one of the following after each Unit's ### on the worksheet:
Fill in the "O" if any of the Unit's facts are new (not in the manual).
Put a "" after the "O" if none of the Unit's facts are new.
Repeat this process with every Chapter and Test Unit below. You may find it easier to pass this test if you refer to a paper copy of the manual as you read the Test Units. You will need to complete a new worksheet if too many "O's" are incorrectly marked.
Time: 1.5 hours for a fast reader, much longer for a slow reader
Step 6: Tap the videos bar at the bottom of this page and watch the time span specified under each video. During your next class, you may need to summarize what you learned from the videos.
Time: approximately 42 minutes
Step 7: Find some YouTube videos (HD only) about driving topics that interest you. Select at least 2 of the most interesting videos, copy and paste their URLs into an email, put your name in the subject line, and send your email to the address at the top of this page.
Time: depends on how much time you spent on Step 5
Step 8: Tap the top image and review the course information.
Step 9: Hand in your worksheet during the Dec-18 class. If you don't have a reserved seat in that class, send an email 3 days before the class to schedule a time to hand in your work (no online submissions).
Step 10: Several days after your final class, check your inbox for an assignment status email (save it until 2025). If your assignment is incomplete, you can schedule a time to pick up a new worksheet.
Some of these Units are condensed (">" indicates a paragraph break) and some contain facts that are subject to change.
101: If you want to head left on the next cross street without the risk of making a left turn at that cross street, you can drive straight through the intersection and make 3 right turns or loop right through a corner parking lot. Here's another strategy: turn right on the cross street, then at a safe location, turn left, do a U-turn, return to the cross street, and turn right on the cross street.
Note: It's easier to understand some Units if you draw a diagram.
102: BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 86: If a vehicle's owner gives expressed or implied consent to someone to use the vehicle, the owner can be liable for a crash that occurs while that person is driving the vehicle. Louis v. Esslinger (1981): The owner of a vehicle for sale allowed a prospective buyer to test drive it. The owner is liable for the driving negligence of the test driver.
103: Reekie v. Messervey (1986): The parents allowed their 21 year old daughter to drive the family vehicle. Later in the day, the daughter allowed the vehicle to be driven by someone who crashed. Since the parents didn't specify the vehicle must not be driven by anyone else, both the parents and the person who crashed are liable.
104: Louis v. Lawrence (2002): The owner of a vehicle loaned it to her father who let his friend drive it and he crashed. The owner said she would not have let the friend drive if she had been asked because she didn't know him well and she understood that he had lost his licence; therefore, she had not given her implied consent for him to drive and she was not liable for the crash.
105: Suel v. Ens (1983): The owner of a vehicle left it with a repairer to fix and presumably take for a test drive. During the test drive, the repairer crashed while he was impaired by alcohol. By leaving the vehicle with the repairer, the owner had consented to him driving it; therefore, both the owner and the repairer are liable for damages.
106: An L-driver's supervisor should use an additional mirror (suction cup mount, etc.) and be prepared to control the vehicle from their seat. They can steer by grabbing the bottom of the steering wheel, brake by using the parking brake (if it's between the seats) with the release button depressed so the handle doesn't lock in any position, or disconnect the engine from the driven wheels by pushing the shift lever from "D" to "N" (to avoid shifting to "R", don't use the shift release). With some engines, if you shift to "N" with the accelerator pedal depressed, a rev limiter protects the engine from over-revving.
107: The driver (even an L driver) is responsible for a police ticket. The registered owner of the vehicle is responsible for a red light or speed camera ticket even if someone else was driving. If a camera ticket wasn't served or paid or disputed, the vehicle's owner may be able to transfer responsibility to the driver if they agree and complete an Application for Driver Nomination form that's available from ICBC.
108: Before driving a vehicle, check the insurance papers to ensure they are valid and there are no restrictions excluding you from driving the vehicle. > Before parking a vehicle, hide valuables in the trunk or under a seat. Since thieves can watch vehicles park and target a vehicle if they see what's in the trunk, put valuables in the trunk before you arrive at the parking lot.
109: BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 195: A person must not cause a vehicle to move on a highway if the control of the driver over the vehicle's driving mechanism, or the view of the driver to the front and sides of the vehicle is obstructed. A passenger in a vehicle must not occupy a position that interferes with the driver's view ahead or with their control over the vehicle's driving mechanism.
110: R. v. Morris (1994): A driver charged with speeding was in the left lane when a speeding vehicle approached her from behind. She used the "Defense of Necessity" to justify why she needed to exceed the speed limit to pass the vehicles on her right so she could change lanes and get out of the way of the faster vehicle behind her. > To use the "Defense of Necessity", you must prove three things: 1) There was an imminent peril or danger; 2) There was no reasonable legal alternative to the illegal course of action you took; 3) The harm (if any) you inflicted was proportional to the harm you avoided.
111: R. v. Primus (2010): A driver who was trying to escape gunshots was charged with dangerous driving. His "Defense of Necessity" required him to prove that he was in imminent peril or danger, there was no reasonable legal alternative to the illegal course of action he took, and the harm (if any) he inflicted was proportional to the harm he avoided.
Some of these Units are condensed (">" indicates a paragraph break) and some contain facts that are subject to change.
201: Adjust your seat position so you have a slight bend in your leg when the brake pedal is fully depressed and a slight bend in your arm while holding the top of the steering wheel with your back resting against the seat. Have the back of your head close to the headrest with the top of the headrest at least level with the top of your head. Have the seat back as vertical as possible to minimize the amount of sliding under the seatbelt (submarining) during a crash.
202: To reduce the risk of internal injuries during a crash, keep the lap belt low on the pelvic bone (not on the abdomen). Don't put the shoulder belt behind the back or under the arm. Ensure both the lap belt and the shoulder belt are snug and have no twists (a twisted seatbelt can cut like a knife during a crash). ICBC may deny an injury claim if a seatbelt is not worn or improperly adjusted.
203: BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 220: A seatbelt is not required while reversing, or if the driver's work involves frequently entering and exiting the vehicle and its speed doesn't exceed 40 km/h, or if the driver has a medical exemption certificate. If a seat belt consists of a pelvic restraint and a separate upper torso restraint (found on some older vehicles), only the pelvic restraint must be worn.
204: BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 220: The driver will receive a ticket for each younger-than-16 passenger who is improperly restrained for their age and size. The driver must ensure the seatbelt is properly adjusted for each younger-than-16 passenger. Some police have said they'd ticket the driver if a passenger of any age was improperly restrained; however, the driver could appeal this ticket. It's illegal to smoke inside a vehicle if any passenger is younger than 16.
205: Keep children in the back seat and away from front and side airbags until at least 12 years of age. The center back seat offers the most protection from side impacts. If the center back seat does not have a headrest, it won't protect a taller person if the vehicle is rear-ended. If the center back seat does not have a shoulder belt, it won't adequately protect an occupant after a frontal collision. > Hard ceiling grab handles can injure occupants during a crash.
206: From birth until a child is at least a year old and weighs at least 20 lbs, put the child's seat in the middle back seat position so there's space between the child seat and the vehicle's front-back-side impact areas. A child seat must face the rear of the vehicle as long as possible; that is, until the child's head is no longer adequately supported by the seat's back.
207: When a child weighs at least 40 lbs, they can transition from a child seat to a booster seat (in the back seat) with a lap and shoulder belt. Position the lap belt low on the hips and the shoulder belt over the midpoint of the shoulder (don't use a booster seat with only a lap belt). The child should use a booster seat until at least 9 years of age or 4' 9" height (whichever comes first). Warn the child about the danger of placing any part of their body in the deployment zone of a side airbag.
208: Ensure all occupants and objects are secured in place. Occupants (including pets) and objects in a vehicle (or its trunk or on outside racks) can injure or kill others as they fly around during a crash or hard braking. In 2009, a 25 year old driver in Surrey was killed in a crash after being struck in the back of her head and neck by a laptop which was on the back seat of her car.
209: During a crash, unrestrained pets can injure occupants. Most of the pet safety harnesses tested by the Center for Pet Safety showed a catastrophic failure after a crash. A properly designed safety harness must keep the pet on the seat, protect the spine by minimizing movement on impact, and stop the head from hitting the back of the front seat after a crash.
210: A driver's torso needs to be at least the length of a sheet of letter size paper away from the airbag module (sheet of legal size paper for passenger). The height of the driver's torso and the tilt of the steering wheel determine which part of the torso the airbag contacts. Don't put a young child in a seat with an airbag. Each occupant should sit in the center of a seat with a side airbag and keep their arms close to the sides of their body so they're not in the deployment path of the air bag. A seatbelt is needed with an airbag.
211: A cracked or stone damaged windshield has reduced structural integrity in a crash. This damage can affect the performance of the front passenger airbag because that airbag is directed by the windshield towards the front seat passenger. If the windshield is damaged, it may not have adequate strength to direct the airbag towards the passenger.
212: Automatic transmission engines can only be started in "P" or "N" while the vehicle is stopped but only "N" while it's moving. If the engine stalls while moving, shift from "D" to "N" (don't use the shift release; otherwise, you may shift past "N"), turn the key to restart the engine, and shift back to "D" (don't use the shift release; otherwise, you may shift past "D"). Some standard transmission engines won't start until the clutch pedal is pushed to the floor. > Be aware of jumper cable risks for vehicle computer modules and bystanders (batteries can explode).
213: With an automatic transmission, usually you shift to "D" and leave the gear shift in that position; however, you can downshift to "2" or "1" at specific speeds (check owner's manual) to help slow down, or when climbing a hill with a heavy load, or when driving on snow or ice. On some vehicles, you can shift to "Overdrive" at speeds above 40 km/h to save fuel.
214: Using "P" on a slope without using the parking brake stresses the parking pawl which locks the transmission's output shaft and prevents the driven wheels from turning in the same direction. Slope induced stress on a parking pawl can damage it or prevent it from releasing when trying to shift out of "P". Because the vehicle's differential allows the driven wheels to turn in opposite directions when there's no traction under a tire (because of ice, snow, leaves, gravel), a vehicle on a slope can roll in "P", so always use the parking brake and turn the wheels.
215: BC Motor Vehicle Act Regulations Section 5.03: A vehicle's parking brake must be able to stop the vehicle and to hold it stationary. > A parking brake is the regular rear brakes (front wheels on some Citroens and Saab's) or two separate rear wheel drum brakes. A parking brake is actuated by an electric motor at each rear brake or by a cable that's tightened by a hand lever or pedal or electric motor. 
216: If moisture freezes inside the housing for a parking brake cable, you may not be able to release the brake. If a parking brake is never used, corrosion inside the housing can make the brake unusable. For cold climate locations where the parking brake may seize, some drivers prevent their vehicles from rolling by chocking their tires instead of using the parking brake.
217: A screeching noise when a disc brake is applied or a chirping noise while driving may be a brake wear indicator (a metal tab that contacts the brake rotor when the brake pads are too worn). Replace the pads as soon as possible to avoid damaging the brake rotor. Drum brakes are sometimes found on the back wheels of some vehicles. Drum brakes are less efficient than disc brakes.
218: Daytime running lights (DRL's) are dim headlights that shine when the engine is running and the parking brake is released. DRL's are dangerous at night or in poor visibility conditions because the headlights are too dim and the tail lights are unlit. In many vehicles, you must turn on the headlights so the tail lights will shine; however, since Sept-2021, the law has required that all new vehicles have auto-on head and tail lights.
219: White reverse lights on your vehicle help you see behind at night. White reverse lights on another vehicle warn you when the driver has shifted into reverse. Before and while you reverse when visibility is limited, give warning taps on the horn and move at a "dead slow" speed. Some vehicles have warning beeps that sound when the vehicle is in "R".
220: Don't use cruise control on a wet, icy, or slippery surface. When a vehicle's driven wheels (connected to the engine via the transmission) lose grip or hydroplane, you may skid because the cruise control will apply continuous power and cause the driven wheels to spin faster. By the time you're able to disengage the cruise control, it may be too late as you may already have lost control.
221: When driving a vehicle with a standard transmission, it's illegal to coast down a hill in "N" or with the clutch pedal depressed. You need to keep the engine engaged with the driven wheels to take advantage of engine braking which is the ability of an engine that's not being accelerated to act as drag on the driven wheels and help decelerate the vehicle.
222: All of the warning lights on the dash should briefly light up when you start the car so you can see if they work. Some warning lights (ABS, oil pressure, etc.) require a faster response than other warning lights (low fuel, etc.) if they come on while driving. Check the owner's manual for the vehicle to see how to respond to each warning light. When the "Check Engine" warning light comes on, the vehicle sometimes enters "limp mode" in which you only have enough power to move the vehicle out of traffic. This mode helps protect the engine until a mechanic can diagnose the problem.
223: Periodically check the following: fluid levels (windshield washer, coolant, brake, transmission or clutch for some vehicles, power steering, oil but don't overfill because too much oil can damage engine), tire condition and pressure, condition of wiper blades, lights (turn signals, reverse, brake, headlights including alignment, side marker, brake, licence plate, tail). > It's illegal to drive with a broken tail light emitting white light.
224: When buying a used vehicle, get the receipts showing that all of the service requirements and the oil changes are up to date. Legitimate receipts from a dealer or service centre will be needed for all warranty repairs. When buying a used vehicle, ask ICBC for a Vehicle Claims History Report because any major repairs in the past will reduce the value of the vehicle.
225: To enhance vehicle handling and fuel economy, periodically check each tire's pressure because air can slowly leak through a tire's structure. Check the tire's pressure when it's cold; that is, after the vehicle has not been driven for at least 2 hours. The tire's maximum pressure is specified on the tire's sidewall. The tire's recommended pressure is specified in the owner's manual or on a sticker somewhere inside the vehicle (often on the driver's door frame). The recommended pressure for a space-saver spare tire is specified on the spare's sidewall.
226: Replace a tire with a cut, bulge, exposed belt, crack, or extensive wear. An unevenly worn tire may be a sign of improper air pressure, tire and wheel balance, shock absorber condition, or wheel alignment (hitting a curb or pothole can affect alignment). Periodically check tire pressure because underinflated tires compromise vehicle handling and increase rolling resistance and fuel use. Don't ignore peculiar sounds or feelings from a vehicle.
227: The alphanumeric code on the sidewall of a tire specifies variables such as the tire's size, type, load index, wear rating, and its maximum speed. Here are the maximum speeds for the speed rating letters found in the code: M=130 km/h, N=140 km/h, P=150 km/h, Q=160 km/h, R=170 km/h, S=180 km/h, T=190 km/h, U=200 km/h, H=210 km/h, V=240 km/h, W=270 km/h, Y=300 km/h. Some tires are designed for police requirements.
228: From October 1 until March 31 on some BC roads, heavy trucks must have chains and passenger vehicles must have winter tires (either mud and snow tires with an "M + S" on the tire's sidewall or snow tires with the image of a snowflake on a 3-peaked mountain). Because winter tires are made of softer rubber to enhance grip, they wear down faster than regular tires. > A towel laid to cover the windshield of a parked car can prevent frost from forming.
229: BC Motor Vehicle Act Regulations Section 7.162: Don't use a winter tire that has less than 3.5 mm of tread depth across the width of the tire. BC Motor Vehicle Act Regulations Section 7.161: Don't use a regular tire that has less than 1.5 mm of tread depth at any two points within 38 cm of each other, or when the tread wear indicators in two adjacent grooves contact the road surface.
230: Secure loose objects in the trunk so they can't fly forwards into the passenger compartment during a crash. Here are some things to check in the trunk: spare tire condition and pressure (see sidewall of space saver spare tire for maximum speed and recommended pressure), jack and handle, lug nut wrench, locking lug nut key, wheel blocks (optional), and reflective triangles.
231: BC Motor Vehicle Act Regulations Section 35.04: You must secure every load so it can't leak, blow off, fall through, fall from, spill, be dislodged, or shift in a way that affects the stability or manoeuvrability of the vehicle. If a load extends more than 1.2 m past the rear of a vehicle, display a red flag on the back of the load during daylight hours and a red light at night.
232: BC Motor Vehicle Act Regulations Section 3.02, 3.03: A licence plate must be horizontal and unobstructed (keep it clean). It must be accurately photographable by a speed monitoring or traffic light camera. Even though it's legal to sell or buy a licence plate cover, it's illegal to use a cover that doesn't allow a traffic camera to accurately photograph the licence plate.
233: Approximately 1 out of every 2 Canadians owns a car or light truck and drives an average of 20,000 km per year (consider this average when buying a used vehicle as it may have above average wear). Two-thirds of the common air pollutants in the Lower Fraser Valley are from cars and light duty trucks. On average, a vehicle emits more than 4 tons of pollutants each year.
234: To reduce vehicle emissions, use a fuel efficient vehicle, keep the engine tuned, change the oil regularly, keep the air filter clean, ensure the air conditioning system has no leaks, fix oil leaks, and use low rolling resistance tires. An idling engine (some bylaws limit idling time to 3 minutes) can damage the vehicle and is bad for the environment.
235: The check engine warning light is a signal from the vehicle's computer that something is wrong with the vehicle. The 5 most common reasons for the check engine light staying on concern the following vehicle parts that affect emissions and the environment: oxygen sensor, loose or faulty gas cap, spark plugs or wires, catalytic convertor, mass airflow sensor.
236: The catalytic converter in a vehicle's exhaust pipe works at 426 C to convert harmful exhaust gases into inert ones (carbon dioxide, etc.) and water vapour. A hot catalytic converter can start a fire if it contacts a flammable material such as dry leaves or grass under a parked vehicle. Because the converter's catalyst is a mixture of precious metals (platinum, palladium, rhodium, etc.), thieves sometimes cut catalytic converters out of the exhaust pipes of parked vehicles.
237: Fuel vapors are explosive, so don't smoke while refueling. Avoid entering and exiting the vehicle (this generates static electricity); but if you do, touch some metal that's far from the fuel nozzle to eliminate your static charge before you touch the fuel nozzle. > A rodent's nest on an engine is a fire hazard. > If an engine catches fire, don't open the hood as this can intensify the fire.
Some of these Units are condensed (">" indicates a paragraph break) and some contain facts that are subject to change.
301: BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 145: A person must not drive at so slow a speed as to impede the normal and reasonable flow of traffic, except when reduced speed is necessary for safety or legal compliance. A peace officer may require a slow driver to increase their speed, or move their vehicle from the roadway to the nearest suitable place and not move from that place until directed to do so (by the peace officer).
302: If a BC driver doesn't pay a Washington State speeding ticket, their licence is suspended 3 months after the ticket was issued. This can lead to criminal charges when they return to Washington ($1000 fine and up to 90 days in jail). If the driver has a Nexus card, they may lose it because driving while suspended is a criminal misdemeanor.
303: BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 144: Drive with due care and attention at a speed relative to other traffic, visibility, and weather conditions. Demonstrate reasonable consideration for others using the road. Saffari v. Lopex (2009): Driving with reasonable consideration for others means you must not stop or suddenly slow in traffic when other options such as exiting the roadway exist. Driving with due care and attention means even if you have the right-of-way, you can be liable for a crash if you don't try to prevent it; for example, scanning for cross traffic when your light is green.
304: BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 147.2: A playground zone sign with a 30 km/h tab below it applies from dawn until dusk. BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 147.1: A school zone sign with a 30 km/h tab below it applies on "regular school days" from 8 am until 5 pm (or other hours if posted on tab). Richmond Street and Traffic Bylaw 10.6: A school zone sign with a 30 km/h tab applies on "school days" from 8 am until 5 pm. Do you know the difference between "regular school days" as specified in the Act and "school days" as specified in the Bylaws?
305: Selecting a point-of-no-return at higher speeds is more difficult, so prepare-to-stop lights (flashing yellow) are sometimes positioned well before the intersection. When the lights start flashing, they warn you that the green light ahead is about to turn yellow and you should prepare to stop. Prepare-to-stop lights sometimes do more harm than good because some drivers speed up to make the green light and if there's a crash in the intersection, it's more severe because of the higher speed.
306: Lane control signals are found above roads with reversible direction lanes (e.g. Lions Gate Bridge, George Massey Tunnel on Highway 99). Do not drive in a lane under a red light. If a yellow light illuminates above your lane, move into a lane under a green light. If there's a yellow light above every lane, slow down and proceed with caution because traffic ahead is congested.
307: Some traffic lights are linked to sensors which use radar or video detection. Other sensors use wire loops buried in the pavement that carry an electric current. When a vehicle with enough metal enters the electromagnetic field above the sensor, the current flowing through the sensor fluctuates and this initiates a process that changes the traffic signal. At many sensors, a bicycle needs to be positioned directly above the wire to be noticed.
308: You cannot drive over a painted island. You can pass if safe on a single, solid yellow line unless a municipal bylaw (e.g. Vancouver) prohibits it. You can cross a solid white line to enter or exit a driveway, but you can't change lanes across a solid white line. BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 143: Don't drive over a newly painted line if it's marked by a traffic control device (e.g. pylon).
Some of these Units are condensed (">" indicates a paragraph break) and some contain facts that are subject to change.
401: BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 170: If you want to turn and traffic may be affected by your turn, you must signal. BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 151: Even if there's no traffic, you must signal a lane change. BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 162 (2): Except within a business or residential area, a commercial vehicle must not follow within 60 m of another commercial vehicle except to overtake and pass.
402: BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 1: A highway includes every road, street, right-of-way, and lane that's designed for, intended for, or used by the public for the passage of vehicles. It also includes private places and passageways to which the public, for the purpose of parking or servicing vehicles, has access to or is invited. > The BC Motor Vehicle Act applies (and you need a driver's licence and insurance) when you're driving on a highway.
403: ICBC v. Routley (1995): A police officer was injured when his car was struck by an uninsured motorist who was driving on an abandoned railway right-of-way. Since the time when the tracks and ties had been removed, the general public (horseback riders, skiers, hikers, cyclists) had used the right-of-way; therefore, it was a highway.
404: R. v. Wong (1997): A BC ferry is a highway. Gray v. Ellis (2006): A shopping mall's parking lot is a highway. Nadeau v. Okanagan Youth Association (2013): A private field used as parking during a special event is a highway during the special event. Pierre v. Miller (2010): A forest service road, even if used by public, isn't a highway as it's considered an industrial road.
405: BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 204: On a highway, a person must not throw, deposit, drop, or leave a glass bottle, glass, nail, tack, wire, can, or anything likely to injure a person, animal, or vehicle. On a highway (including a portion of the right of way of it) a person must not place, deposit, or dump garbage, swill, cans, bottles, papers, ashes, refuse, the carcass of a dead animal, offal, trash, rubbish, or a nauseous or offensive matter.
406: BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 119 (2): An intersection is where vehicles travelling on different highways meet, but for this definition only, a highway doesn't include a lane or way less than 5 m in width that separates the rear property lines of parcels of land fronting on highways running more or less parallel to and on each side of the lane or way.
407: Check cross streets for signs or signals because some intersections are uncontrolled and the first vehicle to arrive has the right of way. When 2 vehicles arrive at the same time, the vehicle on the right has the right of way. Here's why the "yielding to right" rule helps traffic flow faster: when the vehicle on the right is halfway across the intersection, the path is clear for the vehicle on the left; however, if the vehicle on the left went first, it would need to cross most of the intersection before the path would be clear for the vehicle on the right.
408: Tai v. Brown (1992): When two vehicles arrive at the same time at an uncontrolled intersection, the driver on the right has the right of way; however, if that driver operates their vehicle with impunity, at an excessive speed, or without consideration of other vehicles, they will be partly liable for a collision with a vehicle entering the intersection from the left.
409: BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 186: At a stop sign, stop before the stop line, or before the marked crosswalk, or if neither exist, before entering the intersection at the point nearest the intersecting highway from which you have a view of traffic on the intersecting highway. The disclaimer near the front of the ICBC driving manual says the Motor Vehicle Act and Regulations apply whenever the manual is different than the Act and Regulations.
410: BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 175: After stopping at an intersection with a stop sign, a driver wanting to enter a through highway must yield to traffic in the intersection and to any traffic that's close enough to be an immediate hazard, but after yielding, the driver may proceed with caution and all traffic travelling on the through highway must yield.
411: BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 166: Do not turn left at a place that is not an intersection (a private driveway or a lane that's less than 5 m wide) unless you can turn safely without impeding traffic. If you are rear-ended while turning left at a place that is not an intersection, you are partially liable for the crash. BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 176: When you exit a lane or driveway, always stop before the sidewalk, even if there are no pedestrians in the area.
412: BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 119: A crosswalk is where signs, lines, or other markings exist for pedestrians to cross. A crosswalk also exists on the part of a highway within the extension of the lateral lines of a sidewalk on one or both sides of the highway when the sidewalk ends at a curb or the edge of a roadway at an intersection. BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 193: Do not reverse into crosswalks or intersections.
413: The point-of-no-return at a traffic light varies with a vehicle's speed and type, the driver's reaction time, the traffic behind, the road slope and condition, and the pedestrian and vehicle dynamics at the intersection ahead. > If a traffic light stops working, treat the intersection like a 4-way stop; that is, the first vehicle to stop is the first to go and yield to the vehicle on your right if it stops at the same time as you. 
414: Ward v. MacDonald (1997): If a driver is approaching an intersection when the traffic light turns yellow, and the driver can't stop safely, they have the right-of-way through the intersection and another driver who wants to turn left across the approaching driver's path must yield before turning. The turning driver must not proceed until certain the oncoming vehicle will stop.
415: BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 129: After you stop for a red light at an intersection with a two-way street, yield to traffic and pedestrians as required, and ensure there are no signs prohibiting turns on red, you may turn right while the light is red. If the intersecting street is one-way with traffic on that street moving left, you may turn left while the light is red after you stop, yield to traffic and pedestrians as required, and ensure there are no signs prohibiting turns on red.
416: BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 129: After stopping at an intersection red light, you can never proceed straight until the signal turns green. At a non-intersection red light, you must stop to allow pedestrians to cross, but the Act doesn't specify waiting for green before proceeding straight. Vancouver Street and Traffic Bylaw 7(1)(c): At both intersection and non-intersection red lights, wait for the green light before proceeding straight.
417: In BC, it's legal to drive through a corner parking lot to avoid a traffic light or intersection but you must stop before the edge of the sidewalk when exiting the lot; however, laws sometimes change in other jurisdictions. Here's an example: New York Street and Traffic Bylaw 1225: Don't drive across or on a sidewalk, driveway, parking lot or private property, or otherwise drive off the roadway in order to avoid a traffic control device or intersection.
418: When you arrive at a roundabout, yield to pedestrians in the crosswalk at the entrance and yield to vehicles already in the roundabout. If you arrive at the same time as another vehicle arrives, yield to that vehicle if it's on your right. Use the right lane to turn right or go straight. Use the left lane to go straight or turn left. Signal to leave the roundabout and yield to pedestrians in the crosswalk at the exit.
419: BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 165: For a right turn, approach the intersection and turn as close as practicable to the right curb or edge of the road. For a left turn, approach the intersection as close as practicable to the right of the center line or road center and complete the turn to the right of the center line (Act doesn't specify first lane right). If practicable, use the part of the intersection to the left of the intersection's center. If there are multiple turning lanes, follow the lane markings. > During the ICBC road test, complete a left turn in the first lane right of the center line unless there are multiple turning lanes.
420: If there's a two-way left turn lane and you want to turn left into a driveway to exit a road, don't enter the lane without an awareness of oncoming vehicles that may enter the lane. If you're leaving a driveway to enter a road with a two-way left turn lane, don't travel in the lane; however, you can turn into the lane and wait there until it's safe to merge with the traffic on the road you just entered.
421: U-turns are illegal where they interfere with traffic, where signs prohibit them, in intersections with traffic lights, near the crest of a hill with less than 150 m visibility, in business districts except in intersections with no traffic lights, on a curve, and where bylaws prohibit them. Vancouver Street and Traffic Bylaw 2849 (38): U-turns are only permitted on non-arterial roads in uncontrolled intersections.
422: BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 158: If there's no lane to your right, you can pass on the right only if the vehicle you pass is turning left and the road is wide enough so that all of your tires stay on the pavement as you pass. Before passing on the right of a vehicle waiting to turn left, position your vehicle to be more easily seen by any oncoming left-turning vehicles (and slow down if necessary for safety). The passing-on-right restrictions also apply when cycling.
423: When a vehicle approaches you from behind when the speed limit is 80 km/h or more and traffic is moving at least 50 km/h, don't drive in the left lane unless you're passing a vehicle, helping traffic merge, avoiding a hazard, preparing to turn left, or passing an official vehicle that has its lights flashing. This left-lane rule doesn't apply to HOV lanes.
424: Only buses (sometimes cyclists) are allowed in a bus lane marked by a sign with a diamond symbol and an image of a bus. Vanpools (6 or more occupants) may travel in a bus lane if a "Vanpool Permitted" tab is below the bus lane sign. Electric and fuel cell vehicle owners can apply for an "OK" decal that allows unrestricted use of an HOV lane unless a sign prohibits it.
425: If you're carrying enough people for an HOV lane, or you have an "OK" decal, enter and exit the HOV lane only where there are broken lines to indicate a crossing point. If you're not permitted in an HOV lane but you need to turn right where there's a HOV reserved lane to your right, move into that reserved lane near the corner when it's safe to do so.
426: When you are in a merging lane and traffic is dense, waiting until the end of the lane to merge allows more vehicles to fit into the merging lane. Vehicles should merge by alternating from each lane. Avoid stopping in a merging lane, but if you must, be aware of drivers behind who may not see you stopped ahead because their heads are turned to check their blind spots.
427: BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 190: Except when a municipality, a treaty first nation, or the minister responsible for the administration of the Transportation Act permits, a driver must not stop, stand or park a vehicle on a roadway other than on the right side of the roadway and with the right hand wheels parallel to that side, and where there is a curb, within 30 cm of the curb. Double parking (2 rows of vehicles parked parallel along a curb) is illegal.
428: It's illegal to stop in a "No Parking" zone unless the stopped vehicle is actively being loaded or unloaded. It's illegal to stop in a "No Stopping" zone so someone can enter or exit the vehicle. It's illegal to open a vehicle's door into traffic when it's unsafe or to leave it open unless you're actively loading or unloading. To enter a vehicle parked on the road, walk around the front of the vehicle so you can watch approaching traffic as you open the driver's door.
429: Here are some of the places where it's illegal to park: in a bicycle lane; across a driveway; within 6 m of a stop sign, traffic light, crosswalk, or intersection; if you block the visibility of a traffic sign; within 15 m of railway tracks or 5 m of a fire hydrant; on a bridge or boulevard; on a sidewalk; beside a yellow or red curb; in a tunnel; where bylaws prohibit parking. If you don't pay a municipal parking ticket, your credit history can be impacted and city hall can prohibit you from renewing your driver's licence or vehicle registration. These penalties do not apply to private lot parking tickets.
430: BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 189: Do not park in an intersection except as directed by a sign. McDowell v. Barry (1985): If you park in a T-intersection and block the view of the road, you may be liable for a crash. Richmond Street and Traffic Bylaw 12.4 L: There's a maximum of 3 hours parking from 8 am-6 pm on a highway in front of residential or commercial property unless you own the property, live there, or work there.
431: It's usually better to reverse into parking stalls because there is better visibility when exiting the stall, the front blind zone is smaller than the rear zone, shorter jumper cables will reach the battery, and you can turn the front tires to create an impact barrier for adjacent vehicles. In some places, it's illegal to back into a parking stall; for example, here is Edmonton Street and Traffic Bylaw 23: When angle parking, one of the vehicle's front wheels must be no more than 500 mm from the curb (one driver who backed into an angle stall was ticketed even though one of her back wheels was within 500 mm of the curb).
432: BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 191: Lock and secure your parked vehicle (convertible's top up, no window open more than the width of a hand in some municipalities) to prevent unauthorized use. On a slope, turn the front wheels to the curb or side of the road, set the parking brake, and shift to "P". With a standard transmission, shift to the gear matching the direction the car would roll ("R" if facing uphill, "1" if facing downhill).
433: BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 154: When you approach a vehicle while driving on a road that's wide enough for only one vehicle in each direction, position your vehicle so the other driver is able to travel on as nearly as possible at least half of the main travelled portion of the highway. If the road is only wide enough for one vehicle, alternate vehicles from each direction. > Ruda v. Matis (1990): A curb lane with parked cars is considered part of the main travelled portion of the highway. > Blomme v. Principe (1993): A curb lane with parked cars is not considered part of the main travelled portion of the highway.
Some of these Units are condensed (">" indicates a paragraph break) and some contain facts that are subject to change.
501: There are 3 elements of defensive driving found in both the Smith System and the Young Drivers of Canada Approach: 1) Look well ahead and glance in other directions to sustain 360° awareness; 2) Maintain space away from potential hazards or have a viable escape route; 3) Communicate (use lights and horn) with other road users and ensure they see you (establish eye contact as needed).
502: The faster a vehicle is moving, the more information the brain is receiving from the eyes. Since the brain can only process a certain amount of information at any given time, as the speed of a vehicle increases, the brain has to ignore some information concerning peripheral vision. The field of vision therefore decreases as speed increases.
503: Emotions affect the length of eye fixations, which is the attention captured by an object in the visual environment. Lengthy eye fixations often result in a reduced likelihood of recognizing hazards in a constantly changing environment. Studies have found that drivers who were sad had the longest eye fixations and response times. A happy or neutral mood while driving has no effect on fixation length.
504: Looking well ahead can help you select the best lane to travel in. While looking ahead, consider the following: legalities of lane use, danger of oncoming vehicles crossing the center line or turning left, parked vehicles, buses, pedestrians, cyclists, hidden driveways, traffic dynamics, and your speed compared to other vehicles. Allowing other vehicles to pass on your left is more courteous than on your right and it's safer because your left blind spot is smaller.
505: Be aware of 1-2 blocks ahead at city speeds and ½ km on the freeway. Looking well ahead helps you stay centered in your lane. It also helps you see road conditions, hazards, and traffic dynamics so you can select the best lane to travel in. You can place a claim against the BC Ministry of Highways if you sustain injuries or vehicle damage while traveling on an improperly maintained (potholes, etc.) provincial highway.
506: Most vehicles have 2 blind spots. You can check the blind spots by glancing over your shoulders as you drive. Most vehicles also have a blind zone that completely surrounds the vehicle. You must walk around the vehicle to check the blind zone. The size of the blind zone depends on the surface slope around the vehicle, the height of the driver's torso, and the shape of the vehicle. Before you move a parked vehicle, walk around it and check the blind zone so you don't hit a hidden object or person.
507: When someone is driving in your blind spot, adjust your speed so the other vehicle isn't hidden. Maintain space around your vehicle, or when that's not possible, an escape route. Pass quickly through another driver's blind spot, and as you do, cover your horn to decrease the time needed to sound it if necessary. Using the horn is legal only when it enhances safety.
508: If you are in the left or right lane of a road with 3 lanes in one direction and you want to move into the center lane, check your blind spot for vehicles in 2 lanes beside you. If you change lanes when a vehicle is 2 lanes away and parallel with you, and that vehicle changes lanes at the same time, you will contact each other in the center lane.
509: The safe speed for navigating a turn depends on the turn's radius, friction of road surface, bank of turn, strength of crosswinds, tires (type, condition, temperature, pressure), and height of vehicle's center of gravity (for most vehicles it rises as load or passengers are added to vehicle).
510: Slow down before a turn and avoid braking while turning. Weight is transferred to the front wheels when braking, rear when accelerating, left when turning right, and right when turning left; therefore, steering while braking or accelerating transfers more weight to one wheel and the reduced traction at the other wheels increases the risk of skidding.
511: A vehicle cannot be steered if there's no rolling contact between the front tires and the road. If the front tires lose traction while turning (understeer) because the vehicle is travelling too fast, applying the brakes may be the worst thing to do; instead, turn the steering wheel to decrease the steering angle of the front wheels and help them regain rolling contact with the road.
512: The most common crash is the rear-ender and the most common injury is whiplash. Always stop well back from an intersection or a vehicle ahead until the vehicles behind you stop safely. While you wait for them to stop, glance at the mirrors and if you're about to be rear-ended, move ahead into the open space, or steer into any open space beside the vehicle ahead, or brace for impact. You can also warn your passengers to brace (at the start of a trip explain that "brace" means to face ahead with your back against the seat and your head against the headrest).
513: Traffic dynamics behind you must influence how you brake, so frequently check your mirrors. Unless you're using a clutch pedal, keep your left foot on the dead pedal to brace your body. Your body posture affects your reaction time. Stopping distance is reaction distance (from where you decide to brake until where you first brake) plus braking distance (from where you first apply the brakes until where you stop).
514: Covering the brake reduces your reaction distance and therefore your stopping distance. Don't slightly depress the brake pedal when you cover the brake because your brake lights will illuminate and the drivers behind you won't know when you actually begin to brake. When you cover the brake, you can tap the brake pedal a few times to flash your brake lights and get the attention of the drivers behind you.
515: If someone is tailgating you and you are 2 seconds behind the driver ahead, you can use your hazard lights (this sometimes makes the tailgater driver drop back), change lanes, pull over so the tailgater passes, or increase your distance from the vehicle ahead and use delayed braking when needed; that is, apply the brakes slightly to activate the brake lights, but don't apply the brakes harder until the tailgater has time to react to your brake lights.
516: When there are 3 lanes moving in one direction within a municipality, faster traffic often travels in the left and right lanes. If you travel in the center lane, there's less chance of annoying others and being tailgated by faster vehicles, you have the right lane between you and any driveways, and you have the left lane between you and oncoming traffic.
517: McStravick v. Metzler (2012): When one vehicle hits another vehicle from behind, the onus is generally on the striking vehicle to show why the crash wasn't their fault; however, this general proposition does not apply when the vehicle that rear ends another vehicle has been forced into an unsafe situation by the actions of another driver.
518: While waiting to turn left, keep your vehicle and wheels facing straight ahead so you won't be pushed into oncoming traffic if you're rear-ended. To enhance your view ahead while waiting to turn left, you can use the extreme left side of the turning lane as you approach the intersection. As you enter the intersection, steer slightly left and then straighten out before stopping to wait for a gap in traffic.
519: BC Motor Vehicle Act Section 162 (1): Do not follow any vehicle more closely than is prudent and reasonable, having regard for the speed of the vehicle, the amount and nature of traffic, and the condition of the highway. Rudman v. Hollander (2005): A driver must realize that a vehicle ahead of them may unexpectedly slow for no apparent reason, or to avoid an animal or bump or object, or to reach an address.
520: Even though some drivers don't signal or they forget to cancel a signal, you can sometimes anticipate what they are going to do by observing their "vehicle language". If a parked vehicle angles out, the driver may intend to pull out; if a vehicle slows as it approaches a corner, the driver may intend to turn; if a vehicle moves over in a lane, the driver may intend to change lanes or turn.
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